An integrated placement and routing approach
Pan, Min (2006) An integrated placement and routing approach. PhD thesis, Iowa State University.
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As the feature size continues scaling down, interconnects become the major contributor of signal delay. Since interconnects are mainly determined by placement and routing, these two stages play key roles to achieve high performance. Historically, they are divided into two separate stages to make the problem tractable. Therefore, the routing information is not available during the placement process. Net models such as HPWL, are employed to approximate the routing to simplify the placement problem. However, the good placement in terms of these objectives may not be routable at all in the routing stage because different objectives are optimized in placement and routing stages. This inconsistancy makes the results obtained by the two-step optimization method far from optimal. In order to achieve high-quality placement solution and ensure the following routing, we propose an integrated placement and routing approach. In this approach, we integrate placement and routing into the same framework so that the objective optimized in placement is the same as that in routing. Since both placement and routing are very hard problems (NP-hard), we need to have very efficient algorithms so that integrating them together will not lead to intractable complexity. In this dissertation, we first develop a highly efficient placer - FastPlace 3.0 for large-scale mixed-size placement problem. Then, an efficient and effective detailed placer - FastDP is proposed to improve global placement by moving standard cells in designs. For high-degree nets in designs, we propose a novel performance-driven topology design algorithm to generate good topologies to achieve very strict timing requirement. In the routing phase, we develop two global routers, FastRoute and FastRoute 2.0. Compared to traditional global routers, they can generate better solutions and are two orders of magnitude faster. Finally, based on these efficient and high-quality placement and routing algorithms, we propose a new flow which integrates placement and routing together closely. In this flow, global routing is extensively applied to obtain the interconnect information and direct the placement process. In this way, we can get very good placement solutions with guaranteed routability.
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